Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) typically presents with a dull pain just beneath the kneecap and lower front part of the thigh just above the knee joint. It is very common injury for runners. Hence, patellofemoral pain syndrome is sometimes referred to as “runner’s knee” or misalignment of the patella.
The patella pain can be elicited during walking, running, going up/down stairs, squatting and even during long periods of rest, without moving the joint. One or both knees can be affected simultaneously and it is more common with women than it is with men. The reason for the gender issue is based on the fact that women tend to have wider hips, which results in a significantly greater “Q angle” at the patellofemoral joint of the knee.
A number of risk factors for Runners knee have been identified and linked with the onset of patellofemoral pain syndrome in runners. Athletes who log excessive repetitive stress on their knee joint are the most predisposed population to develop patellofemoral pain with an overuse injury. Other factors include knocked knees, wide hips, flat feet and excessive foot pronation.
The perceived kneecap pain is a result of abnormal forces associated with the patellofemoral joint such as abnormal muscle pulling on the painful patella, weak quadriceps muscles, tight hamstrings, subluxations, dislocations, arthritis, stiff Achilles tendon, tendonitis, and degenerating knee cartilages losing their cushioning effects.
This results in an inflammatory response that unleashes a cascade of protective patella pain. Interestingly, this area is more often not swollen.
Signs & Symptoms of Patella Pain for Runners
- Dull aching pain around the kneecap.
- An increase in symptoms during and/or after lower extremity activities such as walking, running, squatting as well after long periods of rest with the joint in a fixed position.
- Pain may also be perceived behind the knee.
- Patella tenderness but not necessarily swelling around the knee.
- Knee joint catching or locking.
- Difficulties attaining full range of movement with popping or snapping sensations noted with active movement.
Professional Treatment for Runners Knee
- Rest, elevate and ice the area for 15-30 minutes, up to 4 times a day.
- Stretching of the quadriceps, hamstrings, hips, ankles and Achilles is a must.
- Significantly limit or postpone your running for now.
- Utilize the latest physical therapy modalities and rehab devices to reduce swelling and decrease pain.
- Avoid excessive weight bearing activities.
- Utilize a self myofascial roller to be used regularly on the quads, lateral thigh, hamstrings and calves.
- Utilize a knee compression sleeve or patella brace as needed. They can either decrease or increase the symptoms, depending upon the athlete.
- Avoid making sharp movements on the knee joint, changing direction with the foot fixed to the ground, bending the knee back and forth.
Asking the Right Questions like a Pro
Here’s what a smart pro athlete would ask his/her sports medicine specialists to ensure a fast and safe return to sports:
- What type of tissue around my knee is the source of my pain?
- Is there any arthritis in my knee and if so, where is it located?
- What type of exercise or physical therapy can I do to minimize or eliminate this pain?
- Do you recommend I take glucosamine?
- Are there any long term complications I should be concerned about?
- Do you recommend the use of orthotics for my injury?
Elite Sports Medicine Tips from Mike Ryan
- Healthy Mind & Body – A healthy body and mind makes for a quicker recovery. Stay positive.
- AM Stretches – Stretch the muscles around your knee joint before you begin your day. A proper warm up is always smart if reducing kneecap pain is your goal.
- Keep Rollin – Lower extremity rolling to increase the blood flow and mobility of the muscles associated with the knee is a must.
- Gear Up the Right Way – Make sure your equipment from your shoes to your exercise equipment is right for you and not contriputing to the problem.
- Level Hipped & Level Head – Make sure you don’t have a leg length discrepancy or alignment problem. When it comes to eliminating kneecap pain, correcting this is priority #1.